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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=adrenal tumor
Updated: 6 hours 58 min ago

Characterization of neuroendocrine tumors in heterozygous mutant MENX rats: a novel model of invasive medullary thyroid carcinoma.

6 hours 58 min ago
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Characterization of neuroendocrine tumors in heterozygous mutant MENX rats: a novel model of invasive medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017 Nov 15;:

Authors: Molatore S, Kügler A, Irmler M, Wiedemann T, Neff F, Feuchtinger A, Beckers J, Robledo M, Roncaroli F, Pellegata NS

Abstract
Rats affected by the MENX syndrome spontaneously develop multiple neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) including adrenal, pituitary and thyroid gland neoplasms. MENX was initially reported to be inherited as a recessive trait and affected rats were found to be homozygous for the predisposing Cdkn1b mutation encoding p27. We here report that heterozygous MENX mutant rats (p27+/mut) develop the same spectrum of NETs seen in the homozygous (p27mut/mut) animals but with slower progression. Consequently, p27+/mut rats have a significantly shorter lifespan compared with their wild-type (p27+/+) littermates. In the tumors of p27+/mut rats, the wild-type Cdkn1b allele is neither lost nor silenced, implying that p27 is haploinsufficient for tumor suppression in this model. Transcriptome profiling of rat adrenal (pheochromocytoma) and pituitary tumors having different p27 dosages revealed a tissue-specific, dose-dependent effect of p27 on gene expression. In p27+/mut rats, thyroid neoplasms progress to invasive and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) accompanied by increased calcitonin levels, as in humans. Comparison of expression signatures of late-stage versus early-stage MTCs from p27+/mut rats identified genes potentially involved in tumor aggressiveness. The expression of a subset of these genes was evaluated in human MTCs, and found associated with aggressive RET-M918T-positive tumors. Altogether, p27 haploinsufficiency in MENX rats uncovered a novel, representative model of invasive and metastatic MTC exploitable for translational studies of this often aggressive and incurable cancer.

PMID: 29142006 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Clinical value of tumor size in the evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas].

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[Clinical value of tumor size in the evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017 Nov 14;97(42):3324-3328

Authors: Li LL, Zhao L, Dou JT, Yang GQ, Gu WJ, Lü ZH, Ba JM, Mu YM, Lu JM, Pan CY

Abstract
Objective: To investigate the clinical value of tumor size in the evaluation of endocrinological and histological natures regarding adrenal incidentaloma (AI) patients. Methods: A total of 1 941 AI patients who were hospitalized in Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 1997 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographics of patients, imaging features, functional status and histological results were analyzed. Results: Of 1 941 patients, 984 (50.70%) were males, and 957 (49.30%) were females. The median age was 52 years old. Endocrine evaluation according to the mass size showed that the proportion of non-functional AI and primary aldosteronism (PA) was declined from 84.55% (558/660) to 27.95% (45/161) and from 6.82% (45/660) to 0, respectively. The highest frequency of subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS), PA and pheochromocytomas were observed in 2.1-4.0, ≤2.0 and 4.0-6.0 cm group, respectively. Histological results showed that in>6 cm group, the frequency of malignancy were sharply increased. Multivariate logistical regression analysis indicated tumor size had a significant association with the presence of malignancy (OR=1.043, 95% CI: 1.033-1.054, P<0.001). A mass size of 4.0 cm was of great value in distinguishing malignant tumors from the benign ones, with a sensitivity of 89.19%, and a specificity of 69.91%. Conclusion: Mass size was of great value in the endocrinological evaluation, as well as distinguishing malignant tumors from the benign ones in AI patients.

PMID: 29141379 [PubMed - in process]

Resveratrol ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior: involvement of the HPA axis, inflammatory markers, BDNF, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats.

6 hours 58 min ago
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Resveratrol ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior: involvement of the HPA axis, inflammatory markers, BDNF, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017;13:2727-2736

Authors: Yang XH, Song SQ, Xu Y

Abstract
Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively. The sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of RES. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hippocampal protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that RES relieved depression-like behavior of CUMS rats, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobile time. Rats that received RES treatment exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by RES. Moreover, after RES treatment, the rats exhibited increased plasma IL-6, CRP, and TNF-α concentrations. Furthermore, RES treatment upregulated the hippocampal protein levels of BDNF and the relative ratio of p-β-catenin/β-catenin while downregulating the relative ratio of p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that RES improved depressive behavior in CUMS rats by downregulating HPA axis hyperactivity, increasing BDNF expression and plasma IL-6, CRP, and TNF-α concentrations, and regulating the hippocampal Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

PMID: 29138567 [PubMed]

A case report of primary adrenal angiosarcoma as depicted on magnetic resonance imaging.

6 hours 58 min ago
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A case report of primary adrenal angiosarcoma as depicted on magnetic resonance imaging.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Nov;96(45):e8551

Authors: Li XM, Yang H, Reng J, Zhou P, Cheng ZZ, Li Z, Xu GH

Abstract
RATIONALE: Angiosarcoma is an extremely rare malignant tumor of endothelial origin. The majority of studies reporting angiosarcoma have been concerned with the clinical and pathological aspects, with limited reporting of their imaging findings. To our knowledge, angiosarcoma of the adrenal gland is very rare. Herein we firstly report a primary adrenal angiosarcoma depicted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old man was referred to our hospital for 1 year left-flank pain that exacerbated in recent 4 months.
DIAGNOSIS: A regular mass with clear boundary was revealed on MRI in the region of left adrenal gland. Its signal intensity was inhomogeneous. It mainly showed isointensity with patchy slight hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and marked hyperintensity with patchy hypointensity on T2-weighted images. On contrast-enhanced images, it demonstrated significantly heterogeneous enhancement, and the peripheral solid component showed delayed enhancement. Bulky blood vessels and hemorrhage were identified in the tumor.
INTERVENTIONS: The mass was surgically excised under a left laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
OUTCOMES: Left adrenal angiosarcoma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examinations. No evidence of recurrence was found 6 months after operation.
LESSONS: In conclusion, primary adrenal angiosarcoma has some MRI features corresponding to its pathological nature. It should be included in the differential diagnosis when a mass was detected in the adrenal gland.

PMID: 29137070 [PubMed - in process]

Malignant transformation of a mature teratoma of the adrenal gland: A rare case report and literature review.

6 hours 58 min ago
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Malignant transformation of a mature teratoma of the adrenal gland: A rare case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Nov;96(45):e8333

Authors: Niu M, Liu A, Zhao Y, Feng L

Abstract
RATIONALE: Adrenal mature TMT is very rare. So far, only two cases have been reported.
PATIENT: We report a rare case of malignant transformation of a mature teratoma in the right adrenal gland of a 36-year-old Chinese female. The patient had been asymptomatic until physical exam identified a palpable mass in the right abdomen. Abdominal non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showed a huge tumor with mixed density in right adrenal region, which had cystic components, fat, calcifications, and separations. Contrast-enhanced CT showed significant enhancement of the cyst wall and septations as well as mural nodules. In addition, the patient had four abnormal laboratory results, including cortisol 773.58 mol/L ↑ (reference range 118.6 to 618 mol/L), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 70.980 pg/ml ↑ (reference range 7.2 to 63.3 pg/ml), aldosterone 317.84 pg/ml ↑ (reference range prone: 49.3-175 pg/ml; Standing: 34.7-275 pg/ml; 24h urine 2.84-33.99 ug/d), and vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) 22.38 mg / 24 h ↑ (reference range 0-13.6 mg / 24 h) which to our knowledge have not been reported by any adrenal mature teratoma's reference literature.
DIGNOSES: It was initially diagnosed as a right adrenal hamartoma by the radiologist. Final pathology confirmed it as malignant transformation of a right adrenal mature teratoma, which is extremely rare.
INTERVENTIONS: Laparoscopic resection is usually the treatment of choice for adrenal teratoma and our case report is no exception.
OUTCOMES: This article is a case report, no outcomes.
LESSONS: Non-enhanced CT findings of a mass with cystic change, fat, calcification and separation are suggestive of a teratoma. If there is significant enhancement of the cyst wall and septations as well as mural nodules in contrast-enhanced CT, then adrenal TMT should be considered. In addition, abnormal levels of hormones including cortisol, ACTH, aldosterone and VMA may also aid in the diagnosis of adrenal TMT.

PMID: 29137015 [PubMed - in process]

[Removal of giant adrenal tumors using the laparoscopic transperitoneal technique. A report of three successful cases].

6 hours 58 min ago
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[Removal of giant adrenal tumors using the laparoscopic transperitoneal technique. A report of three successful cases].

Orv Hetil. 2017 Nov;158(45):1802-1807

Authors: Ottlakán A, Paszt A, Borda B, Simonka Z, Ábrahám S, Lázár G

Abstract
With the development of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, indications for resection gradually span from small and benign to bigger and even malignant lesions. We studied the results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for giant (>10 cm) adrenal tumors in three cases. Three patients (2 female, 1 male, mean age 49.33 years, BMI 31) underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy due to giant (>10 cm) adrenal lesions with a limited size Pfannenstiel incision. Mean operative time was 126.66 minutes, with a mean intraoperative blood loss of 150 ml. Final histology confirmed adrenocortical carcinoma in two cases, and neurofibroma in one case. Mean hospital stay was 4 days, without perioperative complications. R0 resection was carried out in all cases. During a mean follow-up period of 24 months no local or distant metastasis occurred. Under appropriate conditions adrenalectomy performed by the laparoscopic transperitoneal technique for giant malignant tumors proved to be a safe method fulfilling oncological requirements. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(45): 1802-1807.

PMID: 29135271 [PubMed - in process]

[Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy].

6 hours 58 min ago
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[Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy].

Urologiia. 2017 Oct;(5):32-35

Authors: Guliev BG, Komyakov BK, Semenov DV

Abstract
AIM: To analyze the results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LAE) in patients with adrenal gland tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2011 to 2016, 24 patients (15 men, 9 women), mean age 49.6 +/- 8.2 years, underwent LAE. The right, left and bilateral LAE was performed in 12, 10 and 2 patients, respectively. Indications for surgery were mainly primary and metastatic adrenal tumors. The operations were performed using a transperitoneal 4-port approach.
RESULTS: Twenty six LAE were successfully performed in 24 patients. There were no conversions. Blood transfusion was used only in 1 patient, who had a history of the laparoscopic left nephrectomy for the renal cell carcinoma 2 years earlier. She had bleeding due to a spleen injury during the left LAE. She also developed acute postoperative pancreatitis, resolved by conservative therapy. The mean intra- and postoperative blood loss was 160 (120-750) ml, the operative time was 135 (100-205) min, and the length of hospital stay was 4 (3-5) days. Histological examination revealed adenocarcinoma and adenoma in 20 (73.1%) and 6 (26.9%) removed adrenal glands, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is an effective and safe surgical modality to treat patients with adrenal tumors.

PMID: 29135139 [PubMed - in process]

Complete cure of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with right adrenal gland metastasis and portal vein thrombosis by multiple applications of an interdisciplinary therapy: case report with 8-year follow up.

6 hours 58 min ago
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Complete cure of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with right adrenal gland metastasis and portal vein thrombosis by multiple applications of an interdisciplinary therapy: case report with 8-year follow up.

Clin Mol Hepatol. 2017 Nov 14;:

Authors: Jung H, Km BI, Cho YK, Jeon WK, Kim HJ, Hong HP

Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cause of death worldwide and the main cause of primary liver cancer. The principle problem of HCC is the poor prognosis, since advanced HCC reportedly has a median survival of only 9 months. The standard therapies are sorafenib and regorafenib, but the outcomes remain unclear. We report a 60-year-old man with advanced HCC with right adrenal gland metastasis and portal vein tumor thrombosis, who showed a complete response to multiple applications of an interdisciplinary therapy.

PMID: 29132204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Preoperative genetic testing in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas influences the surgical approach and the extent of adrenal surgery.

6 hours 58 min ago
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Preoperative genetic testing in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas influences the surgical approach and the extent of adrenal surgery.

Surgery. 2017 Nov 07;:

Authors: Nockel P, El Lakis M, Gaitanidis A, Yang L, Merkel R, Patel D, Nilubol N, Prodanov T, Pacak K, Kebebew E

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Our knowledge of the susceptibility genes for pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas has increased; however, data on its impact on surgical decision-making has not been described. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of routine preoperative genetic testing on the operative intervention in patients with pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas.
METHODS: One-hundred-eight patients diagnosed with pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas who underwent 118 operations had preoperative genetic testing for 9 known pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma susceptibility genes. A retrospective analysis of a prospective database was performed to evaluate clinical factors associated with the surgical approach selected and the outcome of the surgical intervention.
RESULTS: In 51 patients (47%), a germline mutation was detected and one-third had no family history of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. In 77 operations (65%), it was the first operative intervention for the disease site (60 laparoscopic, 17 open), and 41 (35%) were reoperative interventions (36 open, 5 laparoscopic). For initial operations, variables associated with whether an open or laparoscopic approach was used were tumor size (P = .009) and presence of germline mutation (P = .042). Sixty-eight adrenal operations were performed (54 total, 14 cortical-sparing). Variables significantly associated with a cortical-sparing adrenalectomy being performed were the presence of germline mutation (P = .006) and tumor size (P = .013).
CONCLUSION: Preoperative knowledge of the germline mutation status affects the surgical approach and extent of adrenalectomy. (Surgery 2017;160:XXX-XXX.).

PMID: 29126554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Primary hypothyroidism and isolated ACTH deficiency induced by nivolumab therapy: Case report and review.

6 hours 58 min ago
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Primary hypothyroidism and isolated ACTH deficiency induced by nivolumab therapy: Case report and review.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Nov;96(44):e8426

Authors: Zeng MF, Chen L, Ye HY, Gong W, Zhou LN, Li YM, Zhao XL

Abstract
RATIONALE: Nivolumab is a monoclonal IgG antibody blocking programmed death receptor-1 (PD1), leading to restoration of the natural T-cell-mediated immune response against the cancer cells. However, it also causes plenty of autoimmune-related adverse events, which often involves endocrine system.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 54-year-old male with renal clear cell carcinoma was treated with nivolumab intravenously. Routine monitoring showed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone and low free thyroxine after the 6th administration of nivolumab. After the 12th administration, he developed general fatigue, recurrent hypoglycemia, and relative hypotension. Laboratory tests showed low sodium, low morning cortisol without correspondence increase of corticotrophin (ACTH). Other pituitary hormones were normal. MRI showed no space-occupying lesions, but heterogeneous enhancement of the pituitary gland.
DIAGNOSES: Primary hypothyroidism and isolated ACTH deficiency. The etiologies were assumed to be nivolumab induced autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis and hypophysitis, respectively.
INTERVENTIONS: Hormone replacements with levothyroxine and acetate cortisone were given orally. Nivolumab was adjusted to lower dose and longer interval.
OUTCOMES: The patient felt good after adequate replacement. Nivolumab was returned to routine dose and interval six months later. And the metastasis was not obviously progressed during this time.
LESSONS: The present report provides the first detailed presentation of combined hypothyroidism and isolated ACTH deficiency induced by nivolumab. Adrenal deficiency often develops insidiously. We suggest routine monitoring of fasting blood-glucose, blood pressure and serum sodium as well as thyroid function during nivolumab and other cancer immunotherapies. When unexpected fatigue, hypoglycemia, hypotension or hyponatremia appeared, adrenal deficiency should be taken into consideration.

PMID: 29095280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

CYP17A1 inhibitor abiraterone, an anti-prostate cancer drug, also inhibits the 21-hydroxylase activity of CYP21A2.

6 hours 58 min ago
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CYP17A1 inhibitor abiraterone, an anti-prostate cancer drug, also inhibits the 21-hydroxylase activity of CYP21A2.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Nov;174:192-200

Authors: Malikova J, Brixius-Anderko S, Udhane SS, Parween S, Dick B, Bernhardt R, Pandey AV

Abstract
Abiraterone is an inhibitor of CYP17A1 which is used for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer. Abiraterone is known to inhibit several drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes including CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, but its effects on steroid metabolizing P450 enzymes are not clear. In preliminary results, we had observed inhibition of CYP21A2 by 1μM abiraterone. Here we are reporting the effect of abiraterone on activities of CYP21A2 in human adrenal cells as well as with purified recombinant CYP21A2. Cells were treated with varying concentrations of abiraterone for 24h and CYP21A2 activity was measured using [(3)H] 17-hydroxyprogesterone as substrate. Whole steroid profile changes were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Binding of abiraterone to purified CYP21A2 protein was measured spectroscopically. Computational docking was used to study the binding and interaction of abiraterone with CYP21A2. Abiraterone caused significant reduction in CYP21A2 activity in assays with cells and an inhibition of CYP21A2 activity was also observed in experiments using recombinant purified proteins. Abiraterone binds to CYP21A2 with an estimated Kd of 6.3μM. These inhibitory effects of abiraterone are at clinically used concentrations. A loss of CYP21A2 activity in combination with reduction of CYP17A1 activities by abiraterone could result in lower cortisol levels and may require monitoring for any potential adverse effects.

PMID: 28893623 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Adrenal C11-oxy C21 steroids contribute to the C11-oxy C19 steroid pool via the backdoor pathway in the biosynthesis and metabolism of 21-deoxycortisol and 21-deoxycortisone.

6 hours 58 min ago
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Adrenal C11-oxy C21 steroids contribute to the C11-oxy C19 steroid pool via the backdoor pathway in the biosynthesis and metabolism of 21-deoxycortisol and 21-deoxycortisone.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Nov;174:86-95

Authors: Barnard L, Gent R, van Rooyen D, Swart AC

Abstract
21-Hydroxylase deficiency presents with increased levels of cytochrome P450 21-hydroxylase substrates, progesterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, which have been implicated in the production of androgens via the backdoor pathway. This study shows the biosynthesis of C11-oxy C21 steroids, 21-deoxycortisol and 21-deoxycortisone, and their metabolism by steroidogenic enzymes in the backdoor pathway yielding novel steroid metabolites: 5α-pregnan-11β,17α-diol-3,20-dione; 5α-pregnan-17α-ol-3,11,20-trione; 5α-pregnan-3α,11β,17α-triol-20-one and 5α-pregnan-3α,17α-diol-11,20-dione. The metabolism of 21-deoxycortisol was validated in LNCaP cells expressing the relevant steroidogenic enzymes showing for the first time that the steroid, produced at high levels in 21OHD, is metabolised via the C11-oxy derivatives of 5α-pregnan-17α-ol-3,20-dione and 5α-pregnan-3α,17α-diol-20-one to substrates for the lyase activity of CYP17A1, leading to the production of C11-oxy C19 steroids. 21-Deoxycortisol thus contributes to the pool of potent androgens in 21OHD, with novel steroid metabolites also presenting possible biomarkers in disease identification.

PMID: 28774496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Healthcare on the water.

6 hours 58 min ago
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Healthcare on the water.

BMJ. 2017 03 15;356:j245

Authors:

PMID: 28298315 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Impact of hypercortisolism on skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue mass in patients with adrenal adenomas.

Sat, 11/11/2017 - 02:38
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Impact of hypercortisolism on skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue mass in patients with adrenal adenomas.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017 Nov 08;:

Authors: Delivanis DA, Iñiguez-Ariza NM, Zeb MH, Moynagh MR, Takahashi N, McKenzie TJ, Thomas MA, Gogos C, Young WF, Bancos I, Kyriazopoulou V

Abstract
CONTEXT: Abdominal visceral adiposity and central sarcopenia are markers of increased cardiovascular risk and mortality.
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether central sarcopenia and adiposity can serve as a marker of disease severity in patients with adrenal adenomas and glucocorticoid secretory autonomy.
DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
PATIENTS: Twenty-five patients with overt Cushing syndrome (CS), 48 patients with mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE), and 32 patients with a non-functioning adrenal tumor (NFAT) were included.
METHODS: Medical records were reviewed and body composition measurements (visceral fat [VAT], subcutaneous fat [SAT], visceral/total fat [V/T], visceral/subcutaneous [V/S] and total abdominal muscle mass) were calculated based on abdominal computed tomography (CT).
RESULTS: In patients with overt CS, when compared to patients with NFAT, the V/T fat and the V/S ratio were increased by 0.08 (P<0.001) and by 0.3 (P<0.001); however, these measurements were decreased by 0.04 (P=0.007) and 0.2 (P=0.01), respectively in patients with MACE. Total muscle mass was decreased by -10 cm(2) (P =0.02) in patients with overt CS compared to patients with NFAT.Correlation with morning serum cortisol concentrations after dexamethasone suppression testing revealed that for every 28nmol/L cortisol increase there was a 0.008 increase in V/T (P<0.001), 0.02 increase in the V/S fat ratio (P<0.001), and a 1.2 cm(2) decrease in mean total muscle mass (P=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: The severity of hypercortisolism was correlated with lower muscle mass and higher visceral adiposity. These CT-based markers may allow for a more reliable and objective assessment of glucocorticoid-related disease severity in patients with adrenal adenomas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 29115003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An isolated metachronous metastasis to the adrenal gland from a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: A case report.

Sat, 11/11/2017 - 02:38
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An isolated metachronous metastasis to the adrenal gland from a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep. 2017 Oct 19;41:169-173

Authors: Sakuma Y, Sata N, Endo K, Yasuda Y, Yokota S, Hosoya Y, Shimizu A, Fujii H, Matsubara D, Fukushima N, Asakawa S, Shimada YK, Lefor CK, Lefor AK

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are rare. Treatment includes aggressive local management of the primary lesion and metastases, and systemic somatostatin. This is the first report of an isolated metachronous metastasis to the adrenal gland from a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor that presented 90 months after the primary tumor.
PRESENTATION OF CASE: The patient presented as a 53yo man with a left upper quadrant mass and synchronous metastases to the spleen and liver (pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor T4N0M1, Stage IV), which were resected (CD56-, synaptophysin+, chromogranin+, Ki-67<1%). Over the next 90 months, he underwent five procedures to treat hepatic recurrences (2 liver resections and 3 percutaneous radiofrequency ablations). Serum PIVKA levels were elevated prior to treatment of four of six lesions and returned to baseline after therapy. He presents now, asymptomatic, with a right adrenal mass found on routine imaging and no other lesions. Serum PIVKA was elevated to 44mg/dL. The adrenal gland was resected and shown to be a metastasis (CD56+, synaptophysin+, chromogranin+, Ki-67 15-20%).
DISCUSSION: This patient's clinical course reflects aggressive local therapy of the primary lesion and multiple metastatic lesions to three organs (liver, spleen, adrenal) over nearly eight years. The utility of serum PIVKA levels in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is not previously reported and needs further investigation.
CONCLUSION: This patient has a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with metastases to the spleen, liver and adrenal gland and elevated PIVKA levels with recurrent disease. These unique clinical features add to the diversity of clinical presentation of these rare tumors.

PMID: 29102861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Psychosocial stress sensitizes neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses to Escherichia coli challenge in domestic piglets.

Sat, 11/11/2017 - 02:38
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Psychosocial stress sensitizes neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses to Escherichia coli challenge in domestic piglets.

Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Nov 02;:

Authors: Tuchscherer M, Puppe B, Tuchscherer A, Kanitz E

Abstract
Exposure to psychosocial stress can have a profound impact on immune reactivity and health mediated by hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis activation. However, current knowledge regarding the mechanisms involved in cross-sensitization between stress and the immune system is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of a single social isolation followed by repeated oral Escherichia coli (E. coli) applications on cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the blood; on clinical signs of disease; and on mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2), TNF-α and IL-6 in the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and spleen of 7-, 21- and 35-day-old piglets. Additionally, the protein levels of splenic TNF-α and IL-6 were analyzed. Non-isolated, E. coli-challenged piglets served as a control. Social isolation for 4 h induced a rise in the plasma cortisol concentrations immediately after social treatment and after repeated E. coli applications in isolated compared to non-isolated piglets. The circulating TNF-α concentration was not affected by social treatment. Furthermore, previously isolated piglets showed a higher frequency of signs of disease in response to E. coli challenge than non-isolated piglets, while the haptoglobin and CRP concentrations did not significantly differ between social treatments. In the brain, 11β-HSD1, 11β-HSD2 and IL-6 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and GR, and 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 mRNA expression in the PFC were higher in isolated, E. coli-challenged piglets than in the corresponding controls. Moreover, isolated piglets also displayed higher MR, 11β-HSD1 and IL-6 mRNA expression levels and TNF-α concentrations in the spleen. The stress-induced alterations in the hypothalamus and spleen were particularly pronounced in younger piglets. The present findings may contribute to a better understanding of the complex interplay between early psychological stress and an increased risk of disease and might also have implications on aspects of the health and welfare of farm animals and humans.

PMID: 29102802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Malignant pheochromocytoma with multiple vertebral metastases causing acute incomplete paralysis during pregnancy: Literature review with one case report.

Sat, 11/11/2017 - 02:38
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Malignant pheochromocytoma with multiple vertebral metastases causing acute incomplete paralysis during pregnancy: Literature review with one case report.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Nov;96(44):e8535

Authors: Liu S, Song A, Zhou X, Kong X, Li WA, Wang Y, Liu Y

Abstract
RATIONALE: We present a rare case of malignant pheochromocytoma with thoracic metastases during pregnancy that presented with symptoms of myelopathy and was treated with circumferential decompression, stabilization, and radiation. The management of this unique case is not well documented. The clinical manifestations, imaging results, pathological characteristics, treatment and prognosis of the case were analyzed.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 26-year-old pregnant woman with a history of paroxysmal hypertension during the second trimester presented with lower extremity weakness, numbness, urinary incontinence, and back pain. Imaging studies revealed a right adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple metastases at T8, T11, T12, and the pelvis girdle causing significant multilevel cord compression and significant osteolytic lesions at T11 and T12.
DIAGNOSES: We believe this is the first reported case of metastatic pheochromocytoma of the thoracic spine presenting with symptoms of myelopathy during pregnancy.
INTERVENTIONS: A healthy neonate was delivered by emergency caesarean section at 34 weeks. Subsequently, the patient underwent a circumferential spinal cord decompression and a stabilization procedure.
OUTCOMES: The patient's neurological deficits improved significantly after the surgery, and the postoperative period was uneventful at the 6-month follow-up visit.
LESSONS: This article emphasizes that metastatic pheochromocytoma of the spine, although rare, should be part of the differential when a patient presents with elevated blood pressure, weakness, and urinary incontinence.

PMID: 29095319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Optimal follow-up strategies for adrenal incidentalomas: reappraisal of the 2016 ESE-ENSAT guidelines in real clinical practice.

Sat, 11/11/2017 - 02:38
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Optimal follow-up strategies for adrenal incidentalomas: reappraisal of the 2016 ESE-ENSAT guidelines in real clinical practice.

Eur J Endocrinol. 2017 Dec;177(6):475-483

Authors: Hong AR, Kim JH, Park KS, Kim KY, Lee JH, Kong SH, Lee SY, Shin CS, Kim SW, Kim SY

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Recently, the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE), in collaboration with the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT), asserted that adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) <4 cm and ≤10 Hounsfield units (HU) do not require further follow-up imaging. To validate the clinical application of the follow-up strategies suggested by the 2016 ESE-ENSAT guidelines, we explored the clinical characteristics and natural course of AIs in a single center over 13 years.
DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included a total of 1149 patients diagnosed with AIs between 2000 and 2013 in a single tertiary center. Hormonal examination and radiological evaluations were performed at the initial diagnosis of AI and during the follow-up according to the appropriate guidelines.
RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 54.2 years, and the majority of AIs (68.0%) were nonfunctional lesions. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to discriminate malignant from benign lesions; the optimal cut-off value for mass size was 3.4 cm (sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 95.0%), and that for the pre-contrast HU was 19.9 (sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 67.4%). The majority of nonfunctional lesions did not change in size during the 4-year follow-up period. Applying a cut-off value of 1.8 μg/dL after a 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test, 28.0% of all nonfunctional AIs progressed to autonomous cortisol secretion during the follow-up period. However, we observed no development of overt Cushing's syndrome in the study.
CONCLUSIONS: We advocate that no follow-up imaging is required if the detected adrenal mass is <4 cm and has clear benign features. However, prospective studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm the appropriate follow-up strategies.

PMID: 28870984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Adjuvant radiotherapy for the primary treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma: Are we offering the best?

Sat, 11/11/2017 - 02:38
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Adjuvant radiotherapy for the primary treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma: Are we offering the best?

Int Braz J Urol. 2017 Sep-Oct;43(5):841-848

Authors: Srougi V, de Bessa J, Tanno FY, Ferreira AM, Hoff AO, Bezerra JE, Almeida CM, Almeida MQ, Mendonça BB, Nahas WC, Chambô JL, Srougi M, Fragoso MCBV

Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of ARDT after surgical resection of ACC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of patients from our institutional ACC database were retrospectively assessed. A paired comparison analysis was used to evaluate the oncological outcomes between patients treated with surgery followed by ARDT or surgery only (control). The endpoints were LRFS, RFS, and OS. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was also performed to evaluate local recurrence of ACC when ARDT was used.
RESULTS: Ten patients were included in each Group. The median follow-up times were 32 months and 35 months for the ARDT and control Groups, respectively. The results for LRFS (p=0.11), RFS (p=0.92), and OS (p=0.47) were similar among subsets. The mean time to present with local recurrence was significantly longer in the ARDT group compared with the control Group (419±206 days vs. 181±86 days, respectively; p=0.03). ARDT was well tolerated by the patients; there were no reports of late toxicity. The meta-analysis, which included four retrospective series, revealed that ARDT had a protective effect on LRFS (HR=0.4; CI=0.17-0.94).
CONCLUSIONS: ARDT may reduce the chance and prolong the time to ACC local recurrence. However, there were no benefits for disease recurrence control or overall survival for patients who underwent this complementary therapy.

PMID: 28727379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Piecing Together the Adrenal Cancer Puzzle.

Sat, 11/11/2017 - 02:38
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Piecing Together the Adrenal Cancer Puzzle.

Cancer Discov. 2016 Jul;6(7):687

Authors:

Abstract
Through an international collaboration, researchers have produced an extensive characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare endocrine cancer with limited treatment options. They found that the disease has three DNA methylation-driven subtypes with distinct clinical outcomes, and is prone to genomic instability.

PMID: 27246538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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